The district headquarter is situated in Sonipat. Other smaller towns are Gohana, Ganaur, Mundlana, Kharkhoda and Rai. The total area of Sonipat district is 2,260 sq km and its population is 10,64,000. Sonipat is bordered by the states of Delhi and Uttar Pradesh as well as the districts of Rohtak, Jind and Panipat. The River Yamuna runs along the eastern boundary of the district.
District Sonepat comprises of 4 sub-divisions namely Ganaur, Sonepat, Kharkhoda and Gohana and eight blocks (Ganaur, Sonipat, Rai, Kharkhoda, Gohana, Kathura, Murthal and Mundlana) has been carved out of Rohtak and made a full fledged district on 22 December 1972. Sonepat is the largest tehsil followed by Gohana. It has one Municipal Corporation Sonipat and three municipal committees Ganaur, Gohana and Kharkhoda.
Map of Sonipat district, HaryanaMain water system in the district comprises of River Yamuna and the irrigation canals flowing out of it. There is no perennial river in the district. The underground water resources differ from area to area. The depth of the water table is the lowest in the Khader area along the Yamuna, where it is below 10 ft. It increases to 30 to 40 ft. in some of the western and south eastern part of the district. The ground water in some areas is saline and brackish. The ground water conditions indicate that the district faces the problem of occurrence of brackish water and water logging in eastern parts of the district.
Broadly speaking, the district is a continuous part of the Haryana-Punjab plain, but the area is not leveled in some parts. Over most of the district, the soil is fine loam of rich color. However, some areas has sandy soil and others are comprised of Kallar. The plain has a gradual slope to the south and east. The district may be roughly divided into three regions:
- The Khadar
Along the River Yamuna is a narrow flood plain, 3 to 6 km wide, and is formed by the river along its course. The Khader plain is 20 to 30 ft. lower adjoining upland plain. It is comprised of fine clay loam left by the receding floods of the Yamuna. Presently, rice and sugar cane cultivation is undertaken by the farmers in the Khadar area. Recently, the farmers have started planting Banana, Pappaya and other fruits trees in this area.
- The Upland Plain
It consists of Sonepat tehsil lying to the west of the Khadar, and is the most extensive of the three regions: The Upland Plain is covered with old alluvium , which if properly irrigated, is highly productive. Extensive Farming of crops, oil seeds, horticultural plants, vegetables and flowers, is undertaken in this region. The ridges in Gohana tehsil represent the northern most extension of the Aravallis.
- The Sandy Region
A very smaller part of the district is covered with soil comprising of sand or sandy loam. Parts of this region has high PH value leading to kallor land.
Climate of Sonipat is dry with hot summer and a cold winter. The weather becomes milder during the monsoon (period July to September). The post-monsoon months October and November constitute a transition period, prior to the onset of winter.
The winter starts in December when day and night temperatures fall rapidly. January is the coldest month when the mean daily minimum temperature is 6 to 7 Degree C. During cold waves, the minimum temperature may go down to the freezing point of water, and frosts can occur. During the summer months of May and June, the maximum temperature sometimes reaches 47 Degree Centigrade. Temperature drops considerably with the advancement of monsoon in June. However, the night temperature during this period continues to be high.
Humidity is considerably low during the greater part of the year. The district experiences high humidity only during the monsoon period. The period of minimum humidity (less than 20%) is between April and May.
The annual rainfall varies considerably from year to year. However, the maximum rainfall is experienced during the monsoon season, which reaches it is peak in the month of July. In fact, the monsoon period accounts for 75% of the annual rainfall in the district. On an average there are 24 days in a year with rainfall of 2.5 mm (or more) per day in district Sonepat.
During the monsoon, the sky is heavily clouded, and winds are strong in this period. Winds are generally light during the post-monsoon and winter months.
Sonepat experiences a high incidence of thunder storms and dust storms, often accompanied by violent squalls (andhis) during the period April to June. Sometimes the thunder storm are being accompanied by heavy rain and occasionally by hail storms. In the winter months, fogs sometimes appear in the district.
According the 1991 census the total population of the district is 10,45,158 Of this the urban population forms a small part and is 2,10,521. The district is primarily rural is in nature and the primary activity of the people is agricultural. The rural population of the district is 8,34,637. The male and female ratio in the rural areas is about 1:1 whereas the ratio in the urban areas is detrimental to the female population. The working population of district Sonepat according to 1991 census comprises of 11,50,49 cultivators, 58,296 agricultural laborers. The percentage of cultivators, to manufacturers is higher in sub-division Ganaur, whereas the actual number of agricultural laborers is higher in sub division Sonepat.
District Sonepat, comprising of Sonepat, Gohana and Ganaur sub divisions, has 343 villages and covers an area of 2,13,080 hectares. The irrigated area (both with the help of canal irrigation as well as through tubewells) is 2,86,504 acres and the un-irrigated rainfed area is 43,979 acres. Sonepat is an important saltpetre producing area. The saltpeter appears as efflorescence on the surface during the summer season, specially in the village of Sonepat sub-division.
Water logging is a serious problem effecting the productivity of land. The water logged area, which the water table is between 0 to 5 ft, faces a serious problem. Where the water table is between 5 to 10 ft., the problem of water logging is imminent. There has been an alarming rise in the water table during the last two decades, Specially in the areas adjoining the canals. This has led to appearance of Thur on the surface of soil, followed by sem in several parts of the district, specially the areas adjoining the Yamuna and minor canals running through the district.
The soil in Sonepat is rich and quite suitable for all types of agricultural crops as well as forest cover.
The types of soil may be classified according to textures as :
- Sandy (Raitali)
- Sandy loam (Bhuri)
- Loam (Rausli)
- Clay loam (Karti)
- Clay (Dakar)
Total No. of Villages 349
- Inhabited 334
- Uninhabited 15
Total Population 14,50,001
- Male 7,81,299
- Female 6,68,702