District Sonepat comprises of three sub-divisions namely Ganaur, Sonepat and Gohana and seven blocks (Ganaur,Sonepat ,Rai, Kharkhoda, Gohana, Kathura and Mundlana) has been carved out of Rohtak and made a full fledged District on 22.12.1972.
District Sonepat has an area of 2,13,080 Hectare. It lies in the south-east of the State of Haryana , North of the Union Territory of the Delhi and is bounded by the Districts of Rohtak, Jind, Panipat. The District shares an inter-state boundry with district Meerut of Uttar Pradesh. The River Yamuna runs along the eastern boundary of the district and separates it from Uttar Pradesh.
Sonepat occupies an area of 2,13,080 Hectares. Sonepat is the largest Tehsil in the District followed by Gohana.
Broadly speaking, the entire district is a part of the Punjab plain, but the area is not levelled, in some parts. Over most of the district, the soil is fine loam of rich colour. However, some areas has sandy soil and others are comprised of Kallar. The plain has a gradual slope to the south and east.
The district may be roughly divided into three regions :-
1) The Khadar
2) The Upland Plain
3) The Sandy Region
The climate of District Sonepat is dry with an extremely hot summer and a cold winter. The weather becomes comparatively mild during the monsoon (period July to September). The post-monsoon months October and November constitute a transition period, prior to the onset of winter.
e) REGION SPECIFIC WHETHER PHENOMENA
According the 1991 census the total population of the district is 10,45,158 Of this the urban population forms a small part and is 2,10,521. The district is primarily rural is in nature and the primary activity of the people is agricultural. The rural population of the district is 8,34,637. The male and female ratio in the rural areas is about 1:1 whereas the ratio in the urban areas is detrimental to the female population. The working population of district Sonepat according to 1991 census comprises of 11,50,49 cultivators, 58,296 agricultural labourers. The percentage of cultivators, to manufacturers is higher in sub-division Ganaur, whereas the actual number of agricultural labourers is higher in sub division Sonepat.
District Sonepat, comprising of Sonepat, Gohana and Ganaur sub divisions, has 343 villages and covers an area of 2,13,080 hectares. The irrigated area (both with the help of canal irriagtion as well as through tubewells) is 2,86,504 acres and the un-irrigated rainfed area is 43,979 acres. Sonepat is an important saltpetre producing the district. The saltpetre appears as efflorescence on the surface during the summer season, specially in the village of Sonepat sub-division.
Water logging is a serious problem effecting theproductivity of land. The water logged area, which the water table is between 0 to 5 ft,faces a serious problem. Where the water table is between 5 to 10 ft.,the problem of water logging is imminent. There has been an alarming rise in the water table during the last two decades, Specially in the areas adjoining the canals. This has led to appearance of Thur on the surface of soil,followed by sem in several parts of the district, specially the areas adjoining the Yamuna and minor canals running through the district.
The soil in district Sonepat is rich and quite suitable for all types of agricultural crops as well as forest cover. The types of soil may be classified according to textures as : 1.Sandy(Raitali), 2.Sandy loam(Bhuri), 3.Loam(Rausli), 4.Clay loam(Karti) & 5. Clay(Dakar)
The main soil of the district is a good alluvial loam with sufficient moisture and is mostly rausli in texture.
The main River system in the district comprises of River Yamuna and the Canals flowing out of it. There is no perennial river in the district. The underground water resources differ from area to area. The depth of the water table is the lowest in the Khader area along the Yamuna ,where it is below 10 ft. It increases to 30 to 40 ft. in some of the western and south eastern part of the district. The ground water in some areas is saline and brackish. The ground water conditions indicape that the district faces the problem of occurance of brackish water and water logging in eastern parts of the district.